Romans of the Imperial era used several titles to denote their emperors, and all were associated with the pre-Imperial, Republican era.
Goths surrounded the proud Roman city. Then, quite literally, the cavalry arrived. A small group of men—just nineteen—charged across the plain to scatter the Gothic host. The sheer audacity of the surprise attack must have stunned the besieging army.
The Goths, who are said to have numbered in the thousands, suffered heavy losses, and the city was delivered. In the aftermath, the townspeople watching from behind the broken walls thronged to greet their plucky rescuers. It was an especially joyous reception because the leader of the the tiny cavalry contingent was one of their own, a certain Ecdicius, who had grown up in Clermont before returning to relieve the town with a private army he had raised entirely through his own exertions.
But the affair had been a close one for both Clermont and Sidonius. In his writings Sidonius might well have been justified in asking how a city in the great Roman Empire could have been left so defenseless. Where was the Roman army?
Sidonius never did pose that question because he already knew the answer: The Roman army had been there all along, made up of Goths. It is a story of ambition, but also of miscalculation and finally failure.
In its heyday, the Roman army was composed of citizens and subjects—legionaries were recruited from the ranks of citizens, and subject states contributed the auxiliaries.
Roman politicians commanded both types of soldiers, and the army represented a Romanizing force in the empire. All soldiers learned Latin, and those troops from the more barbarous subject states learned the civil ways of Rome. They wrote letters in Latin and built forts that served as makeshift facsimiles of Roman urban life, complete with public baths.
But even while the imperial army Romanized its troops, the Romans themselves professed an ironic longing for the barbarism of their enemies. Long before the barbarization of the late Roman army, Roman writers expressed admiration for the uncouth warriors who battled their legions.
In the eyes of Tacitus, or even Julius Caesar, civilization made men soft. The fiercest fighters were those deemed least civilized. Perhaps as a consequence of this conviction, Rome often deviated from its standard recruiting policies.
For example, no close reader of Caesar could fail to observe that the legendary general was repeatedly saved, even at Alesia, by mounted German mercenaries whom he had hired for his war against Vercingetorix.
Subsequently, Augustus established an imperial bodyguard, the custodes, composed entirely of Germans. Army recruitment took a similar path.
Whereas Italy still supplied 65 percent of legionary troops during the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, and Caligula, by the mid-second century the contribution of the Italian heartland had dwindled to less than 1 percent.
Rome had begun recruiting its soldiers from the least civilized areas of the empire—a policy that would remain in place in late Roman times.Here’s the will, written under Caesar’s seal.
To every Roman citizen he gives—to every individual man—seventy-five drachmas. Feb 08, · Well the thing about Julius Caesar is that he was although a patrician which is Noble blood he was for the people whereas Pompey was for the Nobles even and he himself was a plebeian which is the Roman middle class Julius Caesar knew what the people wanted they wanted jobs they were sick that the slaves had all the jobs that's why Julius Caesar is so revered because he gave the .
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Cato the Younger, who famously committed suicide in 46 BCE rather than submit to Julius Caesar, symbolized republican liberty to both contemporaries like Cicero, who wrote a lost panegyric, and American patriots like George Washington, who staged Addison’s Cato at Valley Forge.
The transition from a citizen’s army to a very nearly mercenary one did not go smoothly. To many Romans, the same barbarians so admired for their military prowess were also the enemy.