Morrison and Merith A. Cosden Abstract This article uses the concepts of risk and resiliency to frame our understanding of how having a learning disability affects nonacademic outcomes such as emotional adjustment, family functioning, adolescent problems of school dropout, substance abuse and juvenile delinquency, and adult adaptation.
If I have one, will my child inherit it? Hear what our experts have to say about causality and learning disabilities. As of now, no one is certain what causes learning disabilities.
A leading theory among scientists is that learning disabilities stem from subtle disturbances in the way brain structures are formed.
Researchers are also studying genetic links. Problems during pregnancy and birth: Learning disabilities may be caused by illness or injury during or before birth.
It may also be caused by low birth weight, lack of oxygen, drug and alcohol use during pregnancy, and premature or prolonged labor.
Head injuries, nutritional deprivation, and exposure to toxic substances i. Learning disabilities are NOT caused by economic disadvantage, environmental factors, or cultural differences.
In fact, there is frequently no apparent cause for learning disabilities. There appears to be no one cause of learning disabilities. We know that some appear to be hereditary — for example, dyslexia and certain other language-based learning disorders seem to pass through families.
In other instances, early brain injury — such as can occur as a consequence of prematurity — is associated with learning disabilities. Certain toxic exposures, such as lead, can produce injury to the developing brain and lead to learning disabilities.
Many remain obscure in their origins. The most is known about the learning disability known as dyslexia. Individuals with dyslexia do not have the typical pattern of left hemisphere brain organization for reading. Sally Shaywitz at Yale University has done remarkable research with functional magnetic resonance imagings MRIs showing that dyslexic adults have under-activation of the reading area of the brain and over-activation of brain regions responsible for attention and recognition of sounds.
It is no wonder that the adult with a reading disorder is more fatigued after work. Their brain is literally working harder. More generally, there are multiple factors that cause learning disabilities, including atypical brain organization. Parental alcohol abuse and maternal smoking are well-known agents contributing to childhood learning problems.The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) 1 strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities.
Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data sources. A learning disability involves the foundational perceptual and thinking skills that allow us to operate in life.
Thus, just as a sore or injured muscle will cause difficulty wherever that muscle is required for physical movement, so a learning disability will affect a person’s life wherever that skill is required.
The effect of learning environment factors on students' motivation and learning Mary Hanrahan, Centre for Mathematics and Science Education, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
With the help of these young adults, we shed light on critical factors that are important but often overlooked in the lives of individuals with LAI. Our goal for this study was to gather firsthand information from young adults and determine what factors had the greatest impact on .
Most important Conclusions from the Study 1. The dominant factor in explaining individual differences in performance on the FCAT in grade 3 is oral reading fluency 2. The dominant factor in explaining individual differences in performance on the FCAT in grade 10 is verbal knowledge and reasoning ability.
Specific learning disabilities can be defined by a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language. This disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, read, write, spell, and/or to perform mathematical calculations.