By Robert Metzke Jun.
Examples in History, Mathematics, and Science The preceding chapter explored implications of research on learning for general issues relevant to the design of effective learning environments.
We now move to a more detailed exploration of teaching and learning in three disciplines: We chose these three areas in order to focus on the similarities and differences of disciplines that use different methods of inquiry and analysis.
A major goal of our discussion is to explore the knowledge required to teach effectively in a diversity of disciplines. We noted in Chapter 2 that expertise in particular areas involves more than a set of general problem-solving skills; it also requires well-organized knowledge of concepts and inquiry procedures.
Different disciplines are organized differently and have different approaches to inquiry. For example, the evidence needed to support a set of historical claims is different from the evidence needed to prove a mathematical conjecture, and both of these differ from the evidence needed to test a scientific theory.
Discussion in Chapter 2 also differentiated between expertise in a discipline and the ability to help others learn about that discipline. Pedagogical content knowledge is different from knowledge of general teaching methods.
In short, their knowledge of the discipline and their knowledge of pedagogy interact. But knowledge of the discipline structure does not in itself guide the teacher. For example, expert teachers are sensitive to those aspects of the discipline that are especially hard or easy for new students to master.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Examples in History, Mathematics, and Science. Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: The National Academies Press. These conceptual barriers differ from discipline to discipline.
An emphasis on interactions between disciplinary knowledge and pedagogical knowledge directly contradicts common misconceptions about what teachers need to know in order to design effective learning environments for their students.
The misconceptions are that teaching consists only of a set of general methods, that a good teacher can teach any subject, or that content knowledge alone is sufficient.
Some teachers are able to teach in ways that involve a variety of disciplines. However, their ability to do so requires more than a set of general teaching skills. Consider the case of Barb Johnson, who has been a sixth-grade teacher for 12 years at Monroe Middle School.
By conventional standards Monroe is a good school. Standardized test scores are about average, class size is small, the building facilities are well maintained, the administrator is a strong instructional leader, and there is little faculty and staff turnover.
What happens in her classroom that gives it the reputation of being the best of the best? During the first week of school Barb Johnson asks her sixth graders two questions: After the students list their individual questions, Barb organizes the students into small groups where they share lists and search for questions they have in common.Being Female in Science March 08, by Paige Jarreau in Women in Science, Psychology Article by Paige Brown Jarreau, with special thanks to Dr.
Samuel . Governor McAuliffe and the Virginia Council on Women announced the fourth annual STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Essay Contest for high school junior and senior girls.
What Research Says About / Encouraging Girls to Pursue Math and Science.
The Importance of Female Role Models. A teacher and member of the Encouraging Girls in Math and Science expert panel shares experiences in teaching about female role models in math and science.
Encouraging Girls in Math and Science. IES Practice Guide. SEPTEMBER Diane F.
Halpern (Chair) Claremont McKenna College. Joshua Aronson. New York University. the Gender Gap: Encouraging Girls in STEM Starts at Home").
Alicia Chang at the Huffington Post had an idea as to why young boys are more exposed to numbers and math concepts than young.