Between andFrench imperialism waged a bitter colonial war to hang on to its North African colony of Algeria.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Effects of French colonial rule Whatever economic progress Vietnam made under the French after benefited only the French and the small class of wealthy Vietnamese created by the colonial regime. The masses of the Vietnamese people were deprived of such benefits by the social policies inaugurated by Doumer and maintained even by his more liberal successors, such as Paul Beau —07Albert Sarraut —14 and —19and Alexandre Varenne — Through the construction of irrigation works, chiefly in the Mekong delta, the area of land devoted to rice cultivation quadrupled between and The new lands were not distributed among the landless and the peasants but were sold to the highest bidder or given away at nominal prices to Vietnamese collaborators and French speculators.
These policies created a new class of Vietnamese landlords and a class of landless tenants who worked the fields of the landlords for rents of up to 60 percent of the crop, which was sold by the landlords at the Saigon export market.
The mounting export figures for rice resulted not only from the increase in cultivable land but also from the growing exploitation of the peasantry.
The peasants who owned their land were rarely better off than the landless tenants. Peasants continually lost their land to the large owners because they were unable to repay loans given them by the landlords and other moneylenders at exorbitant interest rates.
As a result, the large landowners of Cochinchina less than 3 percent of the total number of landowners owned 45 percent of the land, while the small peasants who accounted for about 70 percent of the owners owned only about 15 percent of the French imperialism in vietnam.
The number of landless families in Vietnam before World War II was estimated at half of the population. Other ways of making the Vietnamese pay for the projects undertaken for the benefit of the French were the recruitment of forced labour for public works and the absence of any protection against exploitation in the mines and rubber plantations, although the scandalous working conditions, the low salaries, and the lack of medical care were frequently attacked in the French Chamber of Deputies in Paris.
The mild social legislation decreed in the late s was never adequately enforced. Apologists for the colonial regime claimed that French rule led to vast improvements in medical care, education, transport, and communications.
The statistics kept by the French, however, appear to cast doubt on such assertions.
Infor example, no more than 15 percent of all school-age children received any kind of schooling, and about 80 percent of the population was illiterate, in contrast to precolonial times when the majority of the people possessed some degree of literacy.
With its more than 20 million inhabitants inVietnam had but one university, with fewer than students. Medical care was well organized for the French in the cities, but in there were only 2 physicians for everyVietnamese, compared with 76 perin Japan and 25 perin the Philippines. Two other aspects of French colonial policy are significant when considering the attitude of the Vietnamese people, especially their educated minority, toward the colonial regime: Not only were rubber plantations, mines, and industrial enterprises in foreign hands—French, where the business was substantial, and Chinese at the lower levels—but all other business was as well, from local trade to the great export-import houses.
The social consequence of this policy was that, apart from the landlords, no property-owning indigenous middle class developed in colonial Vietnam. Thus, capitalism appeared to the Vietnamese to be a part of foreign rule; this view, together with the lack of any Vietnamese participation in government, profoundly influenced the nature and orientation of the national resistance movements.
Movements of national liberation The anticolonial movement in Vietnam can be said to have started with the establishment of French rule. Many local officials of Cochinchina refused to collaborate with the French. Some led guerrilla groups, composed of the remnants of the defeated armies, in attacks on French outposts.
A much broader resistance movement developed in Annam inled by the great scholar Phan Dinh Phungwhose rebellion collapsed only after his death in The main characteristic of the national movement during this first phase of resistance, however, was its political orientation toward the past.
Filled with ideas of precolonial Vietnam, its leaders wanted to be rid of the French in order to reestablish the old imperial order. Because this aspiration had little meaning for the generation that came to maturity afterthis first stage of anticolonial resistance did not survive the death of its leader.
Modern nationalism A new national movement arose in the early 20th century.
Its most prominent spokesman was Phan Boi Chauwith whose rise the old traditionalist opposition gave way to a modern nationalist leadership that rejected French rule but not Western ideas, science, and technology.
In Chau went to Japan. His plan, mildly encouraged by some Japanese statesmen, was to free Vietnam with Japanese help. Chau smuggled hundreds of young Vietnamese into Japan, where they studied the sciences and underwent training for clandestine organization, political propagandaand terrorist action.
Hundreds of demonstrators and suspected organizers were arrested—some were condemned to death, while others were sent to Con Son Poulo Condore Island in the South China Seawhich the French turned into a penal camp for Vietnamese nationalists.The impact of French imperialism on Indochina to Being an imperialist country, France pursed to increase its power, wealth and influence by gaining authority over other parts in the world.
South America and Africa were among the countries the French Empire had owned in addition to Indochina who lost its independence after the war against . French Imperialization in Vietnam caused three main environmental issues.
The first environmental issue was the water quality. This was terrible for the Vietnamese people as it caused thousands to die the people all relied on fresh, clean water. The second environmental issue that was caused by French Imperialism was deforestation. But profit, not politics, was the real driving factor behind the French colonization of Indochina.
Colonial officials and French companies transformed Vietnam’s thriving subsistence economy into a proto-capitalist system, based on land ownership, increased production, exports and low wages. The first missions to Vietnam were undertaken in the 16th and 17th centuries by Dominicans and Jesuits from Portugal and France.
A more permanent presence, which led to French military intervention, was established in the 18th and 19th centuries. French Indochina, Colonialism, Nationalism, and War. French Indochina.
The Arrival of the French Sought modernization of Vietnam, independence and a republic Lenin’s Essay on Imperialism – the Highest Stage of capitalism. Many of Vietnam's educated elite opposed French rule and would not work for the French, but the French found a few opportunistic Vietnamese who would.
In Vietnam, and elsewhere in Indochina, Frenchmen grabbed lands, and they built plantations that produced rubber and other forest products.