Technical Experiments on Humans 6. Relationships and Media 8. Information and Communication Tech 9. Computer Science and Robotics Researching technology can involve looking at how it solves problems, creates new problems, and how interaction with technology has changed humankind.
Types of Cloning a. When scientists wish to replicate a specific gene to facilitate more thorough study, molecular cloning is implemented in order to generate multiple copies of the DNA fragment of interest.
In this process, the specific DNA fragment is transferred from one organism into a self-replicating genetic element, e. Because this kind of cloning does not result in the genesis of a human organism, it has no reproductive intent or goals, and it does not result in the creation and destruction of embryos, there is little to no contention regarding its use.
Therapeutic Cloning Embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos at approximately five days post-fertilization, in the blastocyst stage of development.
Because of their plasticity, embryonic stem cells can be manipulated to become any cell in the human body, e. Many scientists hope that, with proper research and application, embryonic stem cells can be used to treat a wide variety of afflictions, e.
One current obstacle for the successful use of embryonic stem cells for disease therapy concerns immunological rejection. If a patient were to receive stem cell therapy in order to treat some affliction, her body may reject the stem cells for the same reason human bodies have a tendency to reject donated organs: Ina California research team succeeded in creating embryos via SCNT and growing them to the blastocyst stage French et al.
The ovum is then artificially induced to begin dividing as if it had been naturally fertilized usually via the use of an electrical current. Once the embryo is approximately five days old, the stem cells are removed, cultured, differentiated to the desired type of body cell, and inserted back into the patient the genetic donor in this case.
Since the embryo was a genetic duplicate of the patient, there would be no immunological rejection. One use of this technology, for example, is to help treat individuals in the aftermath of a heart attack. It may also be possible to use therapeutic cloning to repair defective genes by homologous recombination Doetschman et al.
Cellular models of diseases can be developed as well, along with the ability to test drug efficacy: The tissue could be experimented upon to understand why disease occurs. Therapeutic cloning is controversial because isolating the stem cells from the embryo destroys it.
Many individuals regard the human embryo as a person with moral rightsand so they consider its destruction to be morally impermissible.
Moreover, because the embryos are created with the explicit intention to destroy them, there are concerns that this treats the embryos in a purely instrumental manner Annas et al. Although some ethicists are in favor of using surplus embryos from fertility treatments for research since the embryos were slated for destruction in any casethey are simultaneously against creating embryos solely for research due to the concern that doing so treats the embryos purely as means Outka, ; Peters, Unlike therapeutic cloning, the cloned embryo is transferred into a uterus of a female of the same species and would be, upon successful implantation, allowed to gestate as a naturally fertilized egg would.
In addition to its slight genetic difference, the cloned embryo would likely be gestated in a different uterine environment, which can also have an effect in ways that may serve to distinguish it from its genetic predecessor.
The result is that the genes behave in ways that may lead to a difference in appearance. In addition to somatic cell nuclear transfer, there is another, less controversial and less technologically complex, manner of reproductive cloning: The embryo is then induced to divide into genetic copies of itself, thereby artificially mimicking what happens when monozygotic multiples are formed Illmensee et al.
The embryos are then transferred into a womb and, upon successful implantation and gestation, are born as identical multiples. If implantation is unsuccessful, the process is repeated.
One argument in favor of artificial embryo twinning is that it provides an infertile couple, who may not have been able to produce many viable embryos through IVF, with more embryos that they can then implant for an increased chance at successful reproduction Robertson, Because some of the embryos may be saved and implanted later, it is possible to create identical multiples who are not born at the same time.
One advantage to doing this is that the later born twin could serve as a blood or bone marrow donor for her older sibling should the need arise; because they are genetically identical, the match would be guaranteed the converse could also hold, that is, the older individual could serve as a donor for the clone should the latter ever need it.
The existence of a cloned person, therefore, could be mutually beneficial, rather than asymmetrical. However, some concerns have been raised.
For example, it has been argued that artificially dividing the embryo constitutes an immoral manipulation of it and that, as much as possible, a unique embryo should be allowed to develop without interference McCormick, Concerns over individuality have also been raised; whereas naturally occurring twins are valued as individuals, one worry is that embryos created through artificial twinning, precisely because of the synthetic nature of their genesis, may not be as valued McCormick, Misconceptions About Cloning and Their Sources The general public still seems to regard human reproductive cloning as something that can occur only in the realm of science fiction.
The portrayal of cloning in movies, television, and even in journalism has spanned from comedic to dangerous. Human clones have often been depicted in movies as nothing but carbon copies of their genetic predecessor with no minds of their own e.
Attack of the Clonesas products of scientific experiments that have gone horribly wrong, resulting in deformed quasi-humans Alien Resurrection or murderous children Godsendas persons created simply for spare parts for their respective genetic predecessor The Islandor as deliberate recreations of famous persons from the past who are expected to act just like their respective predecessor The Boys from Brazil.
On the several occasions which Time Magazine has addressed the issue of cloning, the cover illustrates duplicate instances of the same picture. For example, the February 19, cover shows two mirror image infants staring at each other, the tagline suggesting that cloning may be used by grieving parents who wish to resurrect their dead child.PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large, complex poxvirus with a genome of approximately kb. As the basis of the live smallpox vaccine, it is also the most well-characterised poxvirus.
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Protecting Human Research Subjects National Institutes of Health Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) Institutional Review Board Guidebook.