According to the CDC, narcolepsy is characterized by:
Although the brainstem structures responsible for the symptoms of RBD correspond to the premotor stages of PD, the association of RBD with motor and non-motor features in early PD remains unclear. Methods The study evaluated patients with PD within 3. A neurologist and a trained research nurse carried out evaluation of each participant blinded to the results of the RBDSQ.
Standardised rating scales for motor and non-motor features of PD, as well as health-related quality of life measures, were assessed. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between pRBD and a variety of outcomes, controlling for confounding factors.
Results The overall frequency of pRBD was None of the patients had a previous diagnosis of RBD. Patients with PD and concomitant pRBD did not differ on motor phenotype and scored comparably on the objective motor scales, but reported problems with motor aspects of daily living more frequently.
It is associated with increased severity and frequency of non-motor features, poorer subjective motor performance and a greater impact on health-related quality of life.
Patients often experience violent dream-enacting behaviours leading to disturbed sleep and potential injuries to themselves and their bed partner. These suggest that patients with concomitant RBD are more likely to have a non-tremor phenotype, have a poor response to medication and suffer from more non-motor symptoms.
However, most of these observations were based on a small number of patients with relatively prolonged disease duration. As brainstem structures responsible for the symptoms of RBD correspond to stage 2 of the Braak pathophysiological classification of PD, 3 10 we hypothesise that the symptoms of RBD occur early in the natural history and may be associated with a different clinical phenotype.
In this study, we have endeavoured to estimate the prevalence and describe the association between pRBD and motor and non-motor features in a large cohort of subjects with early PD.
Participants were recruited between September and August Patients were eligible for study inclusion if they met the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain bank criteria 11 for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, as judged by a neurologist.
Patients with secondary parkinsonism due to head trauma or medication use, or features of atypical parkinsonism syndromes, such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration or dementia with Lewy bodies, were excluded.
The study was undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject, with the approval of the local NHS ethics committee, and in compliance with national legislation and the Declaration of Helsinki.
The input of the patient's bed partner is encouraged but is not necessary. Questions 1 to 4 assess the content and frequency of dreams and their relationship to nocturnal movements and behaviour; question 5 asks about potential nocturnal injuries sustained by the patient or their bed partner; question 6 is divided into four subsections and is designed to assess nocturnal motor behaviour, for example, vocalisation, sudden limb movements, complex movements or bedding items that fall down; questions 7 and 8 deal with nocturnal awakenings; question 9, with disturbed sleep in general; and, question 10, with the presence of any neurological disorder.
A cut-off score of 5 was reported by the authors as most useful when differentiating patients with idiopathic RBD from controls.
The following measures of interest were included: Patient demographics, including age, sex and smoking history. A comprehensive past medical history was taken.
Disease duration was calculated from the date the diagnosis was made. The delay to diagnosis was defined as the number of months between the onset of motor symptoms and the date of diagnosis.
As the date of symptom onset was based on participant relocation and thus opens to bias, only disease duration was included in further analyses. A detailed history of all medication use was taken from the patients and, where available, medication records were reviewed. For dopaminergic medications, the levodopa equivalent daily dose LEDD was calculated.
Concomitant use of medications associated with symptoms of RBD was recorded antidepressants and bisoprolol Where available, clinic letters were reviewed for the presence of resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability at the time of first presentation.
Participants were presented with 16 felt-tip pens scented with 16 common odours and asked to identify each one from a choice of four maximum score of Research papers on sleeping disorders cover a wide variety of medical health and psychology topics. Illustrate in your research paper that a sleeping disorder is a medical condition that has a variety of sources.
This sample research paper from the custom writing services at Ultius will examine an array of sleep disorders and their treatments REM sleep behavior disorder - occurs when, instead of being paralyzed, the sleeper acts out his or her dreams – this can be uncomfortable and even dangerous for the sleeper and anyone in bed with him or her 3/5(2).
Below is an essay on "Sleep Disorder" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Scientifically, our body needs at least eight hours of sleep in a day, which is one-thirds of a whole day/5(1).
Background. Concomitant REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is commonly observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the brainstem structures responsible for the symptoms of RBD correspond to the premotor stages of PD, the association of RBD with motor and non-motor features in early PD remains unclear.
The objective of this paper is to describe the importance and types of sleep, the link between sleep and certain diseases, the effect of sleep disorders on individuals, their families, and society, and how to treat these disorders.
Sep 11, · Research Paper on Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy is an unusual sleep disorder classified by uncontrollable and irresistible episodes of excessive sleepiness. Even though the patient sleep 8 to 12 hours a night, they still tend to be tired and fall asleep during the day.
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